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University Bulletin

Undergraduate Degree Programs

Natural Sciences

For some courses, a more detailed description may be available, accessible by clicking on the course number. All course descriptions are updated periodically.

173 courses.

AERSP 055 (S T S 055) (GN)
Space Science and Technology (3) The science and technology of space exploration and exploitation; physical principles; research and development; history, space policy, and social implications.
Effective: Spring 1994

AFR 105 (EARTH 105) (GN;IL)
Environments of Africa: Geology and Climate Change (3) Significant natural features of Africa as related to human endeavor; case studies include the Nile, climate change, natural resources.
Effective: Spring 2013

AGECO 121 (GN)
Plant Stress: It's Not Easy Being Green (3) The many hazards faced by plants and the dynamic ways that plants respond to these problems are examined.
Effective: Summer 2013

AGECO 122 (METEO 122) (GN)
Atmospheric Environment: Growing in the Wind (3) Dynamic effects of weather on ecosystems and habitation of Earth.
Effective: Summer 2013

AGECO 134 (R SOC 134) (GN)
Sustainable Agriculture Science and Policy (3) The science, socio-economics, and politics of managing food and fiber production systems. Sustainability implications of current practices and future options.
Effective: Summer 2013

AGECO 144 (GN)
Principles and Practices of Organic Agriculture (3) An introduction to the science, principles and practices of organic agricultural systems for food production.
Effective: Summer 2013

AN SC 100 (GN)
Introduction to Animal Industries (3) Students will study the biology, production systems, terminology, and emerging issues of the N. American animal industries.
Effective: Summer 2013

AN SC 300 (GN)
Integrated Animal Biology (3) An integrated study of the biology of domestic animal growth and the underlying cellular, endocrine and immune systems involved.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: BIOL 011 and BIOL 012 or BIOL 110 ; at least third-semester standing

ANTH 021 (GN)
Introductory Biological Anthropology (3) The role of human biology and evolution in culture, society, and behavior.
Effective: Spring 2001

ANTH 022 (GN)
Humans as Primates (3) The biological basis of human behavior within the context of primate biology, behavior, and evolution.
Effective: Spring 2009

ANTH 216 (GN;GS)
Sex and Evolution (3) Introduction to evolutionary theory and its application to understanding human sexuality and sex differences.
Effective: Summer 2009

ANTH 218 (GN)
Genes, Evolution and Behavior (4) This course explores how genes influence our traits and how our traits evolve, with special emphasis on behavior.
Effective: Summer 2013

ANTH 260H (GN)
Building the Human Animal (3) An exploration of how the same genetic and developmental properites that shape animal evolution produced the unique human form.
Effective: Summer 2014

ANTH 271H (GN)
Parasites and Human Evolution (3) Advance our understanding of human evolution by studying the ecologies and evolutionary histories of our parasites.
Effective: Spring 2014
Prerequisite: one introductory course that covers some aspects of evolutionary biology or parasitology for example: ANTH 021 BIOL 110 ENT 202 MICRB 106 or MICRB 201.

ASTRO 001 (GN)
Astronomical Universe (3) The development of modern understanding of the astronomical universe from planets and stars to galaxies and cosmology. Student who have passed ASTRO 005, ASTRO 006, or ASTRO 010 may not take this course for credit.
Effective: Fall 2009

ASTRO 001H (GN)
Astronomical Universe (3) The development of modern understanding of the astronomical universe from planets and stars to galaxies and cosmology. Students who have passed ASTRO 005, ASTRO 006, or ASTRO 010 may not take this course for credit.
Effective: Fall 2009

ASTRO 005 (GN)
The Sky and Planets (3) The development of our modern understanding of the visible sky and planetary systems. Students who have passed ASTRO 001 or ASTRO 010 may not take this course for credit.
Effective: Summer 2008
Prerequisite: Students who have passed ASTRO 001 or ASTRO 010 may not take this course.

ASTRO 006 (GN)
Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe (3) The development of our modern understanding of stars, galaxies, and the astronomical universe. Students who have passed ASTRO 001 or ASTRO 010 may not take this course for credit.
Effective: Summer 2008
Prerequisite: Students who have passed ASTRO 001 and ASTRO 010 may not take this course.

ASTRO 010 (GN)
Elementary Astronomy (2) Introductory survey of modern astronomy from planets and stars to galaxies and the universe. Students who have passed ASTRO 001, ASTRO 005, or ASTRO 006 may not take this course for credit. Students may not receive General Education credit for ASTRO 010 unless they also take ASTRO 011.
Effective: Fall 2009

ASTRO 011 (GN)
Elementary Astronomy Laboratory (1) Selected experiments and explorations to illustrate major astronomical principles and techniques. Telescopes observations of planets, stars and nebulae.
Effective: Fall 2004
Prerequisite: or concurrent: ASTRO 001 or ASTRO 010

ASTRO 120 (GN)
The Big Bang Universe (3) Exploration of cosmology, birth, and ultimate fate of the universe; origin of galaxies, quasars, and dark matter. For non-science majors.
Effective: Fall 2012
Prerequisite: ASTRO 001 ASTRO 006 or ASTRO 010

ASTRO 130 (GN)
Black Holes in the Universe (3) The predicted properties of black holes and the astronomical evidence for their existence are investigated in the context of modern ideas about space, time, and gravity.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: ASTRO 001 or ASTRO 010

ASTRO 140 (GN)
Life in the Universe (3) The problem of the existence of life beyond Earth is investigated, drawing from recent research in astronomy and other fields. For non-science majors.
Effective: Fall 2012
Prerequisite: ASTRO 001 ASTRO 005 or ASTRO 010

ASTRO 291 (GN)
Astronomical Methods and the Solar System (3) Physical processes and observational techniques in astronomical systems, characteristics of the sun, planets, and moons.
Effective: Spring 2002
Prerequisite: PHYS 211

ASTRO 292 (GN)
Astronomy of the Distant Universe (3) Observed properties and astrophysical understanding of stars, stellar evolution, galaxies, the large-scale universe, and cosmology.
Effective: Spring 2002
Prerequisite: ASTRO 291

ASTRO 320 (GN)
Observational Astronomy Laboratory (2) Basic observational astronomy techniques introduced through observational exercises, lab experiments, and lectures on relevant statistical techniques.
Effective: Fall 2012
Prerequisite: ASTRO 291

B M B 001 (GN)
Understanding the Bases of Human Disease (3) A broad survey of the molecular and cellular factors that contribute to an understanding of selected human diseases.
Effective: Fall 2004

B M B 001S (GN)
Understanding the Bases of Human Disease (3) A broad survey of the molecular and cellular factors that provide an explanation for an understanding of human disease.
Effective: Spring 2001

BI SC 001 (GN)
Structure and Function of Organisms (3) An exploration of how cellular structures and processes contribute to life and how life displays unity even in its diversity. Students who have passed BIOL 027, 110, or 141 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2004

BI SC 001H (GN)
Structure and Function of Organisms (3) An exploration of how cellular structures and processes contribute to life and how life displays unity even in its diversity. Students who have passed BIOL 027, 110, or 141 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2014

BI SC 002 (GN)
Genetics, Ecology, and Evolution (3) The study of how living organisms inherit their traits, how plants and animals evolved, and how they now interact. Students who have passed BIOL 033, 133, 110, 220W, or 222 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2003

BI SC 003 (GN)
Environmental Science (3) Kinds of environments; past and present uses and abuses of natural resources; disposal of human wastes; prospects for the future. Students who have passed BIOL 220 or any other upper-level ecology course in biology may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BI SC 004 (GN)
Human Body: Form and Function (3) A general survey of structure and function--from conception, through growth and reproduction, to death. Students who have passed BIOL 129 and 141 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2002

BIOL 011 (GN)
Introductory Biology I (3) An introduction to fundamental biological topics (including cells, energy transduction, genetics, evolution, organismal structure/function, ecology) for non-majors biology-related fields.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 012 (GN)
Introductory Biology II (1) Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of biology.
Effective: Summer 1992
Prerequisite: or concurrent: BIOL 011

BIOL 110 (GN)
Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 110H (GN)
Honors Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) Honors study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Spring 2006

BIOL 110L (GN)
Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Summer 1994

BIOL 110P (GN)
Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology.
Effective: Summer 1994

BIOL 110S (GN)
Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity (4) A study of the evolution of the major groups of organisms including the fundamental concepts of biology. This course also fulfills the First-Year Seminar requirements.
Effective: Summer 1999

BIOL 120A (GN;US;IL)
Plants, Places, and People (3) Useful and dangerous plants; historical (archaeological), cultural (ethnological), and economic (anthropocentric) aspects, including structural and chemical characteristics of botanical importance. Students who have passed BIOL (PPATH;S T S) 424 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 127 (GN)
Introduction to Plant Biology (3) Cellular structure and organization; physiological processes; classification; reproduction and development; relationship of plant groups. Students who have passed BIOL 240W may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 129 (GN)
Mammalian Anatomy (4) Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 129L (GN)
Mammalian Anatomy (4) Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 129P (GN)
Mammalian Anatomy Anatomy of a mammal, with special reference to that of man. Students who have passed BIOL 421 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 1998

BIOL 133 (GN)
Genetics and Evolution of the Human Species (3) Human heredity and evolution, individual and social implications. The course is for non-majors; students who have passed BIOL 222, 230W, B M B 251 or any upper-division biology course may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 141 (GN)
Introductory Physiology (3) Explanation of the normal structure and function of the animal body, with special emphasis on human body systems. Students who have passed BIOL 472 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Fall 2003

BIOL 155 (GN)
Introduction to the Biology of Aging (3) Examination of human aging from a biological perspective. Population demographics, physiological and pathological changes, and healthy lifestyles are discussed. Students who have passed BIOL 409 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 177 (GN)
Biology of Sex (3) Basic structure and function of the human reproductive system. Physiology of gametogenesis, fertilization, contraception, gestation, parturition, lactation, and sexual behavior.
Effective: Spring 2008

BIOL 220M (GN)
Honors Biology: Populations and Communities (4) Honors study of the major physical, chemical, and biological factors constituting environment and their dynamic interaction with organisms forming ecosystems.
Effective: Summer 2005
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 220W (GN)
Biology: Populations and Communities (4) A study of the structures and functions of organismic interactions from simple populations to complex ecosystems. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)   BIOL 220W GN, 230W GN, and 240W GN each carry only 1 credit to "Writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the W requirement.
Effective: Fall 2004
Prerequisite: BIOL 110

BIOL 230M (GN)
Honors Biology: Molecules and Cells (4) Honors study of cellular phenomena including molecular genetics and metabolic interactions.
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 CHEM 110

BIOL 230W (GN)
Biology: Molecules and Cells (4) A study of cellular phenomena including molecular genetics and metabolic interactions. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)   BIOL 220W GN, 230W GN, and 240W GN each carry only 1 credit to "Writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the W requirement.
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 CHEM 110

BIOL 240M (GN)
Honors Biology: Function and Development of Organisms (4) Honors study of development and physiological processes at the organismic level. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 CHEM 110

BIOL 240W (GN)
Biology: Function and Development of Organisms (4) A study of development and physiological processes at the organismic level. (BIOL 220W, 230W, and 240W each carry only 1 credit of "writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the writing requirement.)   BIOL 220W GN, 230W GN, and 240W GN each carry only 1 credit to "Writing"; all three courses must be taken to meet the W requirement.
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 CHEM 110

CHEM 001 (GN)
Molecular Science (3) Selected concepts and topics designed to give non-science majors an appreciation for how chemistry impacts everyday life. Students who have received credit for CHEM 003, 101, or 110 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Summer 2007

CHEM 003 (GN)
Molecular Science With Laboratory (3) Selected concepts and topics designed to give non-science majors an appreciation for how chemistry impacts everyday life. Students who have received credit for CHEM 001, 101, or 110 may not schedule this course.
Effective: Summer 2007

CHEM 005 (GN)
Kitchen Chemistry (3) An elementary discussion of the chemistry associated with foods and cooking.
Effective: Summer 2014

CHEM 101 (GN)
Introductory Chemistry (2-3) Selected principles and applications of chemistry. Prior study of chemistry is not assumed. Students may take only one course for General Education credit from CHEM 101 or CHEM 110.   Students may take only one course for General Education credit from CHEM 101 GN or CHEM 110 GN.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: MATH 021 ; or satisfactory performance on the MATH placement examination-- i.e. placement beyond the level of MATH 021

CHEM 106 (GN)
Introductory and General Chemistry (5) Introductory chemistry and chemical principles for students who are required to take additional chemistry, e.g., CHEM 112, but are unprepared for CHEM 110.   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: satisfactory performance on the Math placement test--i.e. placement beyond the level of MATH 022; or MATH 022 or MATH 041

CHEM 110 (GN)
Chemical Principles I (3) Basic concepts and quantitative relations. Students may take only one course for General Education credit from CHEM 110 or CHEM 101.   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).   Students may take only one course for General Education credit from CHEM 101 GN or CHEM 110 GN.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: satisfactory performance on the Math placement tests -- i.e. placement beyond the level of MATH 022 ; or CHEM 101 and MATH 022 or MATH 041

CHEM 110H (GN)
Chemical Principles I - Honors (3) Basic concepts and quantitative relations of chemistry at a level appropriate for students with advanced backgrounds and talents. Students may take only one course for General Education credit from CHEM 110 or CHEM 101. GN to receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Spring 2013
Prerequisite: satisfactory performance on the Chemistry and Math FTCAP tests-- i.e. placement beyond the level of CHEM 101 and MATH 022; or CHEM 101 and MATH 022 or MATH 041

CHEM 111 (GN)
Experimental Chemistry I (1) Introduction to quantitative experimentation in chemistry.   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: or concurrent: CHEM 110 or CHEM 106

CHEM 111H (GN)
Experimental Chemistry I (1) Introduction to quantitative experimentation in chemistry.
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2014
Prerequisite: or concurrent: CHEM 110 or CHEM 106

CHEM 112 (GN)
Chemical Principles II (3) Continuation of CHEM 110, including an introduction to the chemistry of the elements.   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Spring 2009
Prerequisite: CHEM 110 or CHEM 106

CHEM 112H (GN)
Chemical Principles II - Honors (3) Continuation of CHEM 110, including an introduction to the chemistry of the elements. GN to receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and (CHEM 111; CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: CHEM 110 or CHEM 106

CHEM 113 (GN)
Experimental Chemistry II (1) Continuation of CHEM 111, with emphasis on topics related to CHEM 112.   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: CHEM 111 . Prerequisite or concurrent: CHEM 112

CHEM 113B (GN)
Experimental Chemistry II--Bioscience (1) A continuation of CHEM 111 with emphasis on topics related to CHEM 112 in the context of bioscience.   GN To receive Natural Sciences General Education (GN) credit for certain chemistry courses requires both lecture and laboratory courses be taken. These courses are: (CHEM 106 or CHEM 110 or CHEM 110H) and CHEM 111; (CHEM 112 or CHEM 112H) and (CHEM 113 or CHEM 113B).
Effective: Summer 2007
Prerequisite: CHEM 111 . Prerequisite or Concurrent: CHEM 112

CHEM 233 (ENGL 233) (GH;GN)
Chemistry and Literature (3) Exploration of key concepts of chemistry, the reciprocal influence of chemistry and literature throughout history, and the relationship of science to society, culture, and values.
Effective: Summer 2007

DANCE 370 (GN)
Anatomy for Performers (3) To provide performers with anatomical theory and concepts applicable to the disciplines of the performing arts.
Effective: Summer 2012
Prerequisite: DANCE 270 or THEA 102

E R M 210 (GN)
Environmental Factors and Their Effect on Your Food Supply (3) An exploration of how urban environmental problems influence our ability to obtain food and natural resources.
Effective: Spring 2000

EARTH 002 (GN)
The Earth System and Global Change (3) An interdisciplinary introduction to the processes, interactions and evolution of the earth's biosphere, geosphere and hydrosphere.
Effective: Fall 2007

EARTH 100 (GN)
Environment Earth (3) Natural processes and their relationship to anthropogenic influences. General principles of global cycles and the role they play in natural hazards, global warming, ozone depletion, etc.
Effective: Fall 2004

EARTH 100H (GN)
Environment Earth: Environment and Energy (3) Examination of climate change and energy issues.
Effective: Summer 2014

EARTH 101 (GN;US)
Natural Disasters: Hollywood vs. Reality (3) Analysis of the causes and consequences of natural disasters; comparison of popular media portrayal of disasters with perspective from scientific research.
Effective: Summer 2005

EARTH 103 (GN)
Earth in the Future: Predicting Climate Change and Its Impacts Over the Next Century (3) Climate predictions for the coming century are utilized to examine potential impacts on regions, sectors of society, and natural ecosystems.
Effective: Summer 2000

EARTH 105 (AFR 105) (GN;IL)
Environments of Africa: Geology and Climate Change (3) Significant natural features of Africa as related to human endeavor; case studies include the Nile, climate change, and natural resources.
Effective: Spring 2013

EARTH 106 (GN)
The African Continent: Earthquakes, Tectonics and Geology (3) Study of earthquakes and seismic waves to learn about the geology and plate tectonics of the African continent.
Effective: Summer 2007

EARTH 111 (GN;US)
Water: Science and Society (3) Investigation of water behavior and occurence, its relevance to life, human activities, politics, and society.
Effective: Summer 2006

EARTH 150 (GN)
Dinosaur Extinctions and Other Controversies (3) Dinosaur extinctions and other major and controversial events in the history of life.
Effective: Spring 2004

EARTH 240 (GN)
Coral Reef Systems (4) The geography, geology, biology ecology and chemistry of coral reef ecosystems; threats to reef environments; and techniques for reef surveying and monitoring; with local geologic and distant modern field studies.
Effective: Spring 2012
Prerequisite: Prerequisite or concurrent: KINES 045 or Nationally Recognized Scube Certification

EGEE 101 (MATSE 101) (GN)
Energy and the Environment (3) Energy utilization and technological development, energy resources, conversion and consequences on the local and global environment, and future energy alternatives.
Effective: Fall 2007

EGEE 101A (MATSE 101A) (GN;IL)
Energy and the Environment (3) Energy utilization and technological development, energy resources, conversion and consequences on the local and global environment, and future energy alternatives.
Effective: Fall 2007

EGEE 101H (GN)
Energy and the Environment (3) Energy utilization and technological development, energy resources, conversion and consequences on the local and global environment, and future energy alternatives.
Effective: Summer 2009

EGEE 102 (GN)
Energy Conservation for Environmental Protection (3) Exposure to energy efficiency in day-to-day life to save money and energy, and thereby protect the environment.
Effective: Spring 2000

EGEE 102H (GN)
Energy Conservation for Environmental Protection (3) Honors level exposure to energy efficiency in day to day life to save money and energy, and thereby protect the enviroment.
Effective: Summer 2008

EGEE 110 (GN)
Safety Science for the Rest of Your Life (3) Survey of applications and technologies associated with safety in our every day life with associated review of scientific principles and economic, social and political impacts.
Effective: Summer 2005

EGEE 210 (GN)
Technological Legacy of Pennsylvania Coal (3) Survey of coal technologies with a review of scientific principles and economic, social, and political impacts.
Effective: Summer 2005

EM SC 121 (GN)
Minerals and Modern Society (3) Production and use of mineral resources in modern society with an emphasis on the interrelationships and their effect on the Earth system.
Effective: Summer 1996

EM SC 150 (S T S 150) (GN;IL)
Out of the Fiery Furnace (3) A history of materials, energy and man, with emphasis on their interrelationships. For nontechnical students.
Effective: Spring 2006

ENGL 233 (CHEM 233) (GH;GN)
Chemistry and Literature (3) Exploration of key concepts of chemistry, the reciprocal influence of chemistry and literature through history, and the relationship of science to society, culture, and values.
Effective: Spring 2006

ENT 202 (GN)
The Insect Connection (3) An introduction to the diversity of insects and the ways in which they interact with humans and impact our world.
Effective: Summer 1998

ENT 222 (GN)
Honey Bees and Humans (3) This course explores the unique biology and behavior of bees, examining our relationship with them through time and across cultures.
Effective: Spring 2014

FOR 201 (GN)
Global Change and Ecosystems (3) This course will provide students with an understanding of the climate system, ecosystems, and feedbacks between the two.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: 3 credits of science

FRNSC 100 (GN)
Introduction to Forensic Science (3) Introduction forensic science.
Effective: Spring 2011

FRNSC 200 (GN)
Introduction to Crime Scene Investigation (3) This course offers an exploration of the science, management, and investigative techniques for the field of crime scene investigation.
Effective: Spring 2010

GEOG 010 (GN)
Physical Geography: An Introduction (3) Survey and synthesis of processes creating geographical patterns of natural resources, with application of basic environmental processes in resource management.
Effective: Spring 2006

GEOG 010S (GN)
Physical Geography: An Introduction (3) Survey and synthesis of processes creating geographical patterns of natural resources, with application of basic environmental processes in resource management.
Effective: Spring 2006

GEOG 110 (GN)
Climates of the World (3) Introduction to climatology, including principal processes of the global climatic system and their variation over space and time.
Effective: Fall 2004

GEOG 111 (GN)
Biogeography and Global Ecology (3) Distribution of plants and animals on global, regional, and local scales; their causes and significance.
Effective: Fall 2007

GEOG 115 (GN)
Landforms of the World (3) Distribution of the world's landform features and mineral resources; their characteristics, causes, and significance. Practicum includes correlated field trips and laboratory studies.
Effective: Fall 2004

GEOSC 002 (GN)
Historical Geology (3) History of the earth and its life; fundamentals of evolution, correlation, and paleogeography; practicum includes field trips, study of geologic maps, geologic problems, and fossils, with emphasis on Appalachian geology. (This course includes from one to several field trips for which an additional charge will be made to cover transportation.)   This course contains from one to several field trips for which an additional charge will be made to cover transportation.
Effective: Summer 1995

GEOSC 010 (GN)
Geology of the National Parks (3) Introduction to geology, geological change, and environmental hazards, as seen in the National Parks.
Effective: Fall 2003

GEOSC 020 (GN)
Planet Earth (3) Nontechnical presentation of earth processes, materials, and landscape. Practicum includes field trips, study of maps, rocks, and dynamic models, introduction to geologic experimentation. (This course includes from one to several field trips for which an additional charge will be made to cover transportation.)   This course contains from one to several field trips for which an additional charge will be made to cover transportation.
Effective: Fall 2003

GEOSC 020L (GN)
Planet Earth (3) Nontechnical presentation of earth processes, materials, and landscape. Practicum includes field trips, study of maps, rocks, and dynamic models, introduction to geologic experimentation. (This course includes from one to several field trips for which an additional charge will be made to cover transportation.)
Effective: Summer 1988

GEOSC 021 (GN)
Earth and Life: Origin and Evolution (3) Introduction to the origin and evolution of life on Earth from the perspective of geologic time and the fossil record.   This course contains from one to several field trips for which an additional charge will be made to cover transportation.
Effective: Spring 2002

GEOSC 030 (GN)
Volcanoes (3) Basic concepts in Volcanology and Geosciences are explored through a series of virtual field trips to historic eruptions.
Effective: Summer 2014

GEOSC 040 (GN)
The Sea Around Us (3) Introduction to marine sciences and the world ocean, including physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of oceanography.
Effective: Fall 2003

GEOSC 040L (GN)
The Sea Around Us (2) Introduction to marine sciences and the world ocean, including physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of oceanography.
Effective: Summer 2009

GEOSC 040P (GN)
The Sea Around Us (1) Introduction to marine sciences and the world ocean, including physical, chemical, biological, and geological aspects of oceanography.
Effective: Spring 2009

GEOSC 109H (GN)
Earthquakes and Society (3) Introduction to earthquakes and seismology, and their relationship to society, including monitoring for nuclear weapons and seismic hazards.
Effective: Spring 2007

GEOSC 110H (GN)
The Science of Gemstones (3) An exploration of the geological uses of gems and of the physical and chemical properties underlying their brilliance and color.
Effective: Summer 2002
Prerequisite: high school chemistry and trigonometry

GEOSC 111 (GN)
Forensic Geoscience (3) Covers fundamental geoscience concepts such as stratigraphy, mineral and soil identification, seismology, and geochemistry within the context of forensic investigation.
Effective: Spring 2008

HORT 101 (GN)
Horticultural Science (3) Introduction to horticulture with emphasis on plant domestication, morphology, classification, world food crops, commodities, gardens, propagation, and agrochemicals.
Effective: Summer 2013

HORT 150 (GN)
Plants in the Human Context (3) An introduction to the many fascinating and vital relationships between plants and human society.
Effective: Summer 2013

INART 050 (GN)
The Science of Music (3) Waves, physics of sound, hearing, musical scales, musical instruments, and room acoustics.
Effective: Spring 2012

MATSE 081 (GN;IL)
Materials in Today's World (3) A survey of the properties, manufacture, and uses of polymers, ceramics and metals in today's world with emphasis on modern developments and new materials.
Effective: Summer 2005

MATSE 091 (GN)
Polymers, Life and Society (3) An exploration of the science and use of polymer materials and their impact on society using a case study approach.
Effective: Summer 2005

MATSE 101 (EGEE 101) (GN)
Energy and the Environment (3) Energy utilization and technological development, energy resources, conversion and consequences on the local and global environment, and future energy alternatives.
Effective: Fall 2007

MATSE 101A (EGEE 101A) (GN;IL)
Energy and the Environment (3) Energy utilization and technological development, energy resources, conversion and consequences on the local and global environment, and future energy alternatives.
Effective: Fall 2007

MATSE 112 (GN)
Applied Materials Chemistry for Engineers (3) Chemistry of materials with emphasis on intermolecular forces between atoms, molecules, ions, and dense materials and inorganic and organic physical chemistry. In most majors, this course is not a substitute for CHEM 013 or CHEM 112.
Effective: Spring 2009
Prerequisite: CHEM 110

METEO 002 (GN)
Our Changing Atmosphere: Personal and Societal Consequences (3) A survey of meteorology emphasizing how the nature of our lives, individually/societally, depends upon atmospheric structure, quality, and processes.
Effective: Spring 2003

METEO 003 (GN)
Introductory Meteorology (3) Nontechnical treatment of fundamentals of modern meteorology and the effects of weather and climate. A student who took METEO 002 may take the laboratory part of this course for 1 credit only.
Effective: Spring 2003

METEO 004 (GN)
Weather and Risk (3) Non-technical introduction to the science and historical development of meteorology, and the role of weather forecasting as a tool for risk management by individuals, businesses, and societies.
Effective: Summer 2007

METEO 005 (GN)
Severe and Unusual Weather (3) Non-technical introduction to the physical processes important in the formation of various severe and unusual weather phenomena.
Effective: Summer 2011

METEO 101 (GN)
Understanding Weather Forecasting (3) Fundamental principles of synoptic and physical meteorology, satellite and radar imagery, and data analysis in the setting of mid-latitude weather forecasting.
Effective: Fall 2001

METEO 122 (AGECO 122) (GN)
Atmospheric Environment: Growing in the Wind (3) Students will learn about the effect of weather on plants, animals, and humans.
Effective: Summer 2006

MICRB 106 (GN)
Elementary Microbiology (3) Importance of microorganisms in health and disease, agriculture, and industry; descriptive course for students not planning advanced study in microbiology. The combination of MICRB 106 GN and 107 GN must be taken to receive General Education credit in biology.   Students must take a combination of MICRB 106 GN and 107 GN to receive General Education credit in biology.
Effective: Spring 2002

MICRB 107 (GN)
Elementary Microbiology Laboratory (1) Selected techniques used to observe, identify and count bacteria; effects of chemical and physical agents on microorganisms. The combination of MICRB 106 GN and 107 GN must be taken to receive General Education credit in biology.   Students must take a combination of MICRB 106 GN and 107 GN to receive General Education credit in biology.
Effective: Spring 2002
Prerequisite: or concurrent: MICRB 106

PHYS 001 (GN)
The Science of Physics (3) Historical development and significance of major concepts, with emphasis on the nature of physics and its role in modern life. (For students in non-mathematical fields.)
Effective: Fall 2004

PHYS 001H (GN)
The Science of Physics (3) Historical development and significance of major concepts, with emphasis on the nature of physics and its role in modern life. (For students in non-mathematical fields.)
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2014

PHYS 010 (GN)
Physics Behind the Headlines (3) Select topics in modern physics with emphasis on understanding science related articles in the news (For students in non-mathematical fields.)
Effective: Summer 2013

PHYS 150 (GN)
Technical Physics I (3) Elementary treatment of topics in mechanics, heat, wave motion, and sound leading toward an understanding of technical applications.
Effective: Spring 2007
Prerequisite: 1 1/2 units of algebra. Prerequisite or concurrent: MATH 021 or MATH 081

PHYS 150L (GN)
Technical Physics I (3) Elementary treatment of topics in mechanics, heat, wave motion, and sound leading toward an understanding of technical applications.
Effective: Summer 1994

PHYS 150P (GN)
Technical Physics I (3) Elementary treatment of topics in mechanics, heat, wave motion, and sound leading toward an understanding of technical applications.
Effective: Summer 1994

PHYS 151 (GN)
Technical Physics II (3) Elementary treatment of topics in electricity, light, and modern physics leading toward an understanding of technical applications.
Effective: Fall 2001
Prerequisite: PHYS 150

PHYS 151H (GN)
Technical Physics II (3) Elementary treatment of topics in electricity, light, and modern physics leading toward an understanding of technical applications.
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2014
Prerequisite: PHYS 150

PHYS 151L (GN)
Technical Physics II (3) Elementary treatment of topics in electricity, light, and modern physics leading toward an understanding of technical applications.
Effective: Fall 2001
Prerequisite: PHYS 150

PHYS 211 (GN)
General Physics: Mechanics (4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of mechanics: motion, force, Newton's laws, energy, collisions, and rotation.
Effective: Fall 1999

PHYS 211H (GN)
General Physics: Mechanics (4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of mechanics: motion, force, Newton's laws, energy, collisions, rotation, and oscillations.
Effective: Spring 2012

PHYS 211L (GN)
General Physics: Mechanics (0-4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of mechanics: motion, force, Newton's laws, energy, collisions, and rotation. NOTE: UP offers for 0 credits; Altoona offers for 4 credits.
Effective: Fall 2000

PHYS 211R (GN)
General Physics: Mechanics (4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of mechanics: motion, force, Newton's laws, energy, collisions, and rotation.
Effective: Spring 1999

PHYS 212 (GN)
General Physics: Electricity and Magnetism (4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism.
Effective: Fall 1999
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 212H (GN)
General Physics: Electricity and Magnetism (4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism.
Effective: Summer 2012
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 212L (GN)
General Physics: Electricity and Magnetism (0-4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism. NOTE: UP offers for 0 credits; Altoona offers for 4 credits.
Effective: Fall 2000
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 212R (GN)
General Physics: Electricity and Magnetism (4) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of electricity and magnetism.
Effective: Spring 2000
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 213 (GN)
General Physics: Fluids and Thermal Physics (2) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of fluids and sound, heat, kinetic theory, and entropy.
Effective: Fall 1999
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 213L (GN)
General Physics: Fluids and Thermal Physics (0) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of fluids and sound, heat, kinetic theory, and entropy.
Effective: Fall 1999
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 213R (GN)
General Physics: Fluids and Thermal Physics (2) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of fluids and sound, heat, kinetic theory, and entropy.
Effective: Fall 1999
Prerequisite: MATH 140 PHYS 211

PHYS 214 (GN)
General Physics: Wave Motion and Quantum Physics (2) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of wave motion, geometrical optics, interference phenomena, photons, wave mechanics, and the structure of matter.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: MATH 141 PHYS 211 and PHYS 212

PHYS 214L (GN)
General Physics: Wave Motion and Quantum Physics (0) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of wave motion, geometrical optics, interference phenomena, photons, wave mechanics, and the structure of matter.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: MATH 141 PHYS 211 and PHYS 212

PHYS 214R (GN)
General Physics: Wave Motion and Quantum Physics (2) Calculus-based study of the basic concepts of wave motion, geometrical optics, interference phenomena, photons, wave mechanics, and the structure of matter.
Effective: Spring 2004
Prerequisite: MATH 141 PHYS 211 and PHYS 212

PHYS 250 (GN)
Introductory Physics I (4) Selected topics in mechanics, heat, and sound.
Effective: Fall 2002
Prerequisite: MATH 022 MATH 026 ; or MATH 040 ; or MATH 041 or satisfactory performance on the mathematics proficiency examination

PHYS 250L (GN)
Introductory Physics I (0-4) Selected topics in mechanics, heat, and sound.
Effective: Spring 2010
Prerequisite: MATH 022 MATH 026 ; or MATH 040 ; or MATH 041 or satisfactory performance on the mathematics proficiency examination

PHYS 250P (GN)
Introductory Physics I (0) Selected topics in mechanics, heat, and sound.
Effective: Fall 2002
Prerequisite: MATH 022 MATH 026 ; or MATH 040 ; or MATH 041 or satisfactory performance on the mathematics proficiency examination

PHYS 250R (GN)
Introductory Physics I (4) Selected topics in mechanics, heat, and sound.
Effective: Fall 2002
Prerequisite: MATH 022 MATH 026 ; or MATH 040 ; or MATH 041 or satisfactory performance on the mathematics proficiency examination

PHYS 251 (GN)
Introductory Physics II (4) Selected topics in light, electricity, and magnetism.
Effective: Fall 2002
Prerequisite: PHYS 250

PHYS 251H (GN)
Introductory Physics II (4) Selected topics in light, electricity, and magnetism.
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2014
Prerequisite: PHYS 250

PHYS 251L (GN)
Introductory Physics II (0-4) Selected topics in light, electricity, and magnetism.
Effective: Fall 2010
Prerequisite: PHYS 250

PHYS 251P (GN)
Introductory Physics II (0) Selected topics in light, electricity, and magnetism.
Effective: Fall 2002
Prerequisite: PHYS 250

PHYS 251R (GN)
Introductory Physics II (4) Selected topics in light, electricity, and magnetism.
Effective: Fall 2002
Prerequisite: PHYS 250

PPEM 120 (GN)
The Fungal Jungle: A Mycological Safari From Truffles to Slime Molds (3) This course is an introduction to the world of fungi and their impact on humans and the environment around us.
Effective: Spring 2014

PPEM 300 (GN)
Horticultural Crop Diseases (3) Diseases of horticultural crops are examined stressing their cause, diagnosis, management and national and international importance.
Effective: Spring 2014
Prerequisite: 3 credits in a biological science

R SOC 134 (AGECO 134) (GN)
Sustainable Agriculture Science and Policy (3) The science, socio-economics, and politics of managing food and fiber production systems. Sustainability implications of current practices and future options.
Effective: Summer 2013

S T S 055 (AERSP 055) (GN)
Space Science and Technology (3) The science and technology of space exploration and exploitation; physical principles; research and development; history, space policy, and social implications.
Effective: Spring 1994

S T S 150 (EM SC 150) (GN;IL)
Out of the Fiery Furnace (3) A history of materials, energy, and humans, with emphasis on their interrelationships. For nontechnical students.
Effective: Spring 2006

S T S 201 (GN)
Climate Change, Energy, and Biodiversity (3) Studies of global warming, energy options, and biodiversity; their interrelations as sciences and as societal issues.
Effective: Summer 1994

S T S 201H (GN)
Climate Change, Energy, and Biodiversity (3) Studies of global warming, energy options, and biodiversity; their interrelations as sciences and as societal issues.
Effective: Fall 2014 Ending: Fall 2014

SC 200 (GN)
Science in Our World: Certainty and Controversy (3) A science appreciation course, aimed at making non-scientists more informed consumers of science.
Effective: Summer 2010

SOILS 071 (GN;IL)
Environmental Sustainability (3) An introduction to environmental science, exploring sustainable human- environment interactions with examples from environmental soil science.
Effective: Summer 2013

SOILS 101 (GN)
Introductory Soil Science (3) A study of soil properties and processes and relationships to land use, plant growth, environmental quality, and society.
Effective: Summer 2013

VB SC 211 (GN)
The Immune System and Disease (3) Introduction to the immune system that emphasizes the immune response to infection and consequences of a defective immune response.
Effective: Fall 2007

W F S 209 (GN)
Wildlife and Fisheries Conservation (3) Survey of current and historical issues in wildlife and fisheries conservation; emphasis on vertebrate biodiversity, habitat management and protection, and populations.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: BIOL 110 or BIOL 240W