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University Bulletin
Undergraduate Degree Programs

These course descriptions are not being updated as of August 1, 2016. Current course descriptions are maintained in LionPATH.

Philosophy (PHIL)

PHIL 001 (GH) Basic Problems of Philosophy (3) Introduction to central philosophical themes, including the mind/body problem, the existence of God, ethical problems, the nature of reality.
Students may take only one course for General Education credit from PHIL 001 GH or 004 GH. Effective: Spring 2000
 

PHIL 002 (GH) Philosophy, Politics, and Social Theory (3) Examines relations between political and social organizations, the justification and limits of the state, and issues concerning individuality and community.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 003 (GH) Persons, Moral Values and the Good Life (3) Major ethical positions and assumptions regarding questions of freedom, choice, obligation, and conflicts in contemporary moral conduct, values, and reasoning.
Effective: Fall 2004
 

PHIL 005 (GH) Philosophy, Art, and Film (3) Explores relations between images and reality, representation and culture, and beauty and politics through film, artworks, and aesthetic theories.
Effective: Spring 2002
 

PHIL 006 (GH;IL) (CMLIT 006) Philosophy and Literature in Western Culture (3) Explores fundamental issues of human existence through the traditions of western literature and philosophy.
Effective: Spring 2006
 

PHIL 007 (GH;IL) Asian Philosophy (3) Introduction to philosophical, moral, and aesthetic teachings of Asian traditions such as Hinduism, Buddhism (including Zen), Taoism, Confucianism, and Shintoism.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

PHIL 008 (GH) (WMNST 008) Philosophy and Feminism (3) Explores diverse feminist philosophies of culture and knowledge, and examines gender's role in accounts of reality, truth, morality, and justice.
Effective: Spring 2006
 

PHIL 009 (GH;US) Philosophy, Race, and Diversity (3) Critically examines the significance of race and cultural diversity for, and in, understandings of reality, knowledge, truth, morality, and justice.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

PHIL 010 (GH) Critical Thinking (3) Discussion of the validity, soundness, and fallacies of everyday language use and reasoning; informal logic; and manipulative arguments and propaganda.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 010S (GH) Critical Thinking (3) Discussion of the validity, soundness, and fallacies of everyday language use and reasoning; informal logic; and manipulative arguments and propaganda.
Effective: Spring 2005
 

PHIL 011 (GH) Philosophy, Science, and Truth (3) Examines the philosophical foundations of natural scientific inquiry, knowledge, objectivity, and the relation of scientific truth to common sense.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 012 (GQ) Symbolic Logic (3) Formal logical structures of propositions and arguments; mechanical tests and proof techniques for logically necessary truth and deductive validity.
Effective: Fall 1998
 

PHIL 013 (GH) Philosophy, Nature, and the Environment (3) Studies competing historical and contemporary conceptions of nature, their philosophical foundations, and their implications for environmental problems and public policy.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 014 (GH;US) Philosophy of Love and Sex (3) Explores Western theories and attitudes concerning intimacy and examines various ethical issues involving love and sex.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

PHIL 083S (GH) First-Year Seminar in Philosophy (3) Critical introduction to philosophical issues in ethics, social and political theory, religion, art, metaphysics, and epistemology.
Effective: Summer 1999
 

PHIL 098 Special topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 2001
 

PHIL 100 (GH) The Meaning of Human Existence (3) Explores differing views of the significance of human life, the meaning of freedom, and the way to a meaningful life.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 101 (GH) Pragmatism and American Philosophy (3) An introduction to American thought and its relation to American culture, with a focus on the development of pragmatism.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 102 (GH) Existentialism and European Philosophy (3) Introduction to European philosophy and issues of life, death, meaning, and absurdity, with a focus on existentialism and its development.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 103 (GH) Introduction to Ethics (3) Ethical theory about virtue, duty, autonomy, and life quality applied to moral problems, including character, violence, oppression, abortion, and suicide.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 103W (GH) Introduction to Ethics (3) Ethical theory about virtue, duty, autonomy, and life quality applied to moral problems, including character, violence, oppression, abortion, and suicide.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: ENGL 015 orENGL 030  

PHIL 105 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of Law and Legal Ethics (3) Historical and contemporary philosophies of law; concepts of responsibility, property, rights, and justice; and ethical issues in legal practice.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 106 (GH) Introduction to Business Ethics (3) Studies ethical foundations of business and ethical problems in business practices such as advertising, international trade, labor relations, and marketing.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 107 (GH) (S T S 107) Introduction to Philosophy of Technology (3) The character of technology; its relation to human values; philosophical assumptions in its development; and how it transforms the world.
Effective: Spring 2004
 

PHIL 108 (GH) Introduction to Social and Political Philosophy (3) Critical introduction to political authority, rights, justice, community, inequality, power, pluralism, and other contemporary, social, and political issues.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 108W (GH) Introduction to Social and Political Philosophy (3) Critical introduction to political authority, rights, justice, community, inequality, power, pluralism, and other contemporary, social, and political issues.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: ENGL 015 orENGL 030  

PHIL 109 (GH) Introduction to Aesthetics (3) Examines the nature of art and aesthetic experience, art's relation to beauty and truth, and the nature of creativity.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 110 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of Science (3) Examines science's assumptions about knowledge and reality, the relation between science and culture, and the nature of scientific progress.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 113 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of Literature (3) Examines philosophical ideas in literature, literary forms in philosophies, style and genre, and relation of philosophy, literature, writing, and culture.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 115 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy and Education (3) Examines the nature and goals of education, the philosophical foundations of educational theories, and their economic, political, and cultural implications.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 118 (GH) Introduction to Environmental Philosophy (3) Considers the moral status of the environment and applies ethical theory to issues such as preservation, hunger, pollution, and sustainability.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 119 (GH) Ethical Leadership (3) Introduction to philosophical theories of ethics and leadership. Uses literary and biographical texts in developing skills of application.
Effective: Summer 2007
 

PHIL 122 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of History (3) Examines methodological foundations and interpretations of history, the objectivity of history, and the issue of history as design or chance.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 123 (GH) Introduction to Ethics in Media and Journalism (3) Studies ethical problems, human values, and politics in differing media forms and the ways media shape such problems and values.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 124 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of Religion (3) Explores the meaning of religious belief and experience, the existence of God, ideas of spirituality, and the question of immortality.
Effective: Fall 2003
Prerequisite: third-semester standing  

PHIL 125 (GH) Introduction to Theories of Knowledge (3) Historical and contemporary views on the foundations and conditions of knowledge, belief, justification, and truth, conception, perception, and interpretation.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 125W (GH) Introduction to Theories of Knowledge (3) Historical and contemporary views on the foundations and conditions of knowledge, belief, justification, and truth, conception, perception, and interpretation.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: ENGL 015 orENGL 030  

PHIL 126 (GH) Introduction to Metaphysics (3) Explores the nature of being and reality, the problem of free will and the mind/body problem, identity, and causality.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 126W (GH) Introduction to Metaphysics (3) Explores the nature of being and reality, the problem of free will and the mind/body problem, identity, and causality.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: ENGL 015 orENGL 030  

PHIL 127 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (3) Problems and concepts of mind and consciousness including mind-brain identification, the nature of subjectivity, identity, and artificial intelligence.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 129 (GH) Introduction to Philosophy of Language (3) Studies the nature of meaning in language, how we acquire language, communication, signs, and language as descriptive of reality.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 132 (GH) (RL ST 131) Introduction to Bioethics (3) Studies questions of ethics in relation to biotechnology research and implementation, genetic engineering, medicine, animal and human rights.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 135 (GH;IL) (J ST 135, RL ST 135) Ethics in Jewish Tradition and Thought (3) Examination of Jewish ethical thought from biblical foundations to the modern period, with attention to contemporary issues in moral philosophy.
Effective: Summer 2015
 

PHIL 197 Special topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Spring 1995
 

PHIL 198 Special topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 2001
 

PHIL 199 (IL) Foreign Study--Philosophy (1-12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

PHIL 200 (GH) (CAMS 200) Ancient Philosophy (3) Examines the thought and influence of major Western thinkers from the pre-Socratics to the neo-Platonists, emphasizing Plato and Aristotle.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 201 (GH) Medieval Philosophy (3) Examines the thought and influence of major Western thinkers from the fourth to the fifteenth centuries, emphasizing Augustine and Aquinas.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 202 (GH) Modern Philosophy (3) Examines the thought and influence of major Western thinkers from Descartes to Kant, emphasizing rationalism and empiricism, and critical philosophy.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 203 (GH) Nineteenth Century Philosophy (3) Examines the thought and influence of major Western thinkers from Hegel to Nietzsche, including Marx, Kierkegaard, and Schopenhauer.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 204 (GH) Twentieth Century Philosophy (3) Examines the thought and influence of major Western thinkers of the century, including pragmatists, phenomenologists, existentialists, critical theorists, and feminists.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 208 (GH) Contemporary Philosophy (3) Recent trends in philosophical thought and culture, hybrid philosophies, and the philosophical landscape of the future.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 221 (GH) Philosophy of Science (3) An inquiry into the form and function of concepts, laws, theories, and into the character of scientific explanation and prediction.
Effective: Fall 2003
 

PHIL 233 (GH) (S T S 233) Ethics and the Design of Technology (3) Ethics and individual and group decision-making in the design of technology including design projects and specific attention to institutional ethics.
Effective: Spring 2004
 

PHIL 280H (GH) (FD SC 280H) Food, Values, and Health (3) The perceived relatinship between food and health, emphasizing the conceptual nature of both; and how values contribute to the relationship.
Effective: Spring 2007
 

PHIL 294 Research Project (1-12) Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small-group basis.
Effective: Summer 1994
 

PHIL 296 Independent Studies (1-18) Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.
Effective: Fall 1983
 

PHIL 297 Special Topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject which may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 1983
 

PHIL 298 Special topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 2001
 

PHIL 299 (IL) Foreign Studies (12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

PHIL 395 Internship (1-18) Supervised off-campus, nongroup instruction including field experiences, practica, or internships. Written and oral critique of activity required.
Effective: Summer 1996
Prerequisite: prior approval of proposed assignment by instructor  

PHIL 398 Special topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 2001
 

PHIL 399 (IL) Foreign Study--Philosophy (1-12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

PHIL 401 (AM ST 421) American Philosophy (3) Survey of key figures and movements in American thought including the Transcendentalists, the Pragmatists, and contemporary developments.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200-level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 402 European Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Survey of key figures and movements of Europe, including phenomenology, existentialism, structuralism and post-structuralism, and critical theory.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: PHIL 102 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 403 Environmental Ethics (3) Examines ethical theories, justice, rights, community, and human values revolving around such issues as preservation, conservation, pollution, sustainability, and population.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 103 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 405 Philosophy of Law (3) Examines philosophical views of the nature of law, legal ethics, law and society through questions regarding definition, interpretation, and institutions.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 105 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 406 Business Ethics (3) Examines the moral justification of business practices and economic systems through critical analyses of case studies and applied ethical theories.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: fifth-semester standing  

PHIL 407 (S T S 407) Technology and Human Values (3) Interrelationships of twentieth-century technological change and human values. Emphasis on the social and ethical aspects of technological progress.
Effective: Spring 1999
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 107 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 408W Social and Political Philosophy (3) Historical and philosophical foundations of political organization, authority, and justice, and contemporary issues of rights, community, and culture.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits in philosophy including PHIL 108 or 6 credits at the 200 level  

PHIL 409 Aesthetics (3) Studies concepts of beauty, truth, value, representation, production and reproduction, and reality through philosophical theory and works of art.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 109 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 3 credits of art or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 410 Philosophy of Science (3) Historical and contemporary foundational and methodological issues such as causality, relativity and epistemological relativism, teleology, and the nature of reality.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 110 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 413 Philosophy of Literature (3) Discusses truth, belief, illusion, imagination and creativity through philosophical literature, as well as problems of philosophical writing.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 113 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 416 Philosophy of Social Science (3) Examines the philosophical nature and foundations of methodology, structures and objects, value-neutrality and objectivity in the social sciences.
Effective: Summer 2013
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy including or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 418 Ethics (3) Examines ethical theories, justice, rights, community, and human values revolving around such issues as preservation, conservation, pollution, sustainability, and population.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 103 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 418W Ethics (3) Examines ethical theories, justice, rights, community, and human values revolving around such issues as preservation, conservation, pollution, sustainability, and population.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 103 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 424 Philosophy of Religion (3) Examines the relation between faith and reason, the nature of religious experience, the problem of evil, the existence of God.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 124 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 425W Epistemology (3) The nature of cognition and perception, the conditions of experience, and the justification and truth of belief.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 125 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level; in addition toENGL 015 orENGL 030  

PHIL 426W Metaphysics (3) Examines the nature of reality, the existence of freedom, and the nature of matter, mind, and values.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits in philosophy includingPHIL 126 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 427 Philosophy of Mind (3) Investigates problems of mind from the standpoint of traditional metaphysical views, modern scientific psychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence.
Effective: Spring 1999
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 127 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 432 (S T S 432) Medical and Health Care Ethics (3) Examines ethical, political, and social issues in the research, implementation, and practice of medicine, medical technologies, and healthcare.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: fifth-semester standing  

PHIL 433 (S T S 433) Ethics in Science and Engineering (3) Ethical issues arising in the practice of science and engineering and their philosophical analysis.
Effective: Fall 1995
 

PHIL 435 (S T S 435) The Interrelation of Science, Philosophy, and Religion (3) The historical and transformative interactions between science and Western philosophical and religious views of nature, humanity, and God.
Effective: Spring 1996
 

PHIL 437 (IL) World Philosophies and Cultures (3) Philosophical traditions, problems, and authors in African, Asian, Middle- Eastern, Native American, or other non-Western cultures and intellectual traditions.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy including 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 438 (WMNST 438) Feminist Philosophy (3) Examines the central currents of feminist philosophy, selected problems and concepts regarding difference, gender and sex, identity, and political culture.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy including 6 credits of philosophy at the 200-level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 439 (IL) Asian Philosophies and Issues (3) Exploration of the traditions, problems, and authors of one or more of the philosophical systems of Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, and Confucianism.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: PHIL 007 9 credits in philosophy including PHIL 007 or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 441 Capstone Course in Philosophy (3) This course is intended as the Capstone Course for Philosophy majors and is to be taken during their senior year or during the last semester of their junior year.
Effective: Spring 2011
Prerequisite: 6th semester standing and up  

PHIL 453 Topics in Ancient Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Examines the philosophy of central figures in ancient philosophy from the pre-Socratics to the post-Aristotelians and Neoplatonists.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 200 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 455 Topics in Modern Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Descartes to Kant, including mind and reality, space and time, God and nature, morality and autonomy.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 202 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 456 Topics in Nineteenth Century Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Hegel to Nietzsche, including nature and spirit, history and human nature, ideology and morality.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 203 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 457 Topics in Twentieth Century Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Topics in the philosophy of figures such as Husseri, James, Russell, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Dewey.
Effective: Fall 2007
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 204 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level or 5th semester standing  

PHIL 458 Topics in Contemporary Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Topics in the philosophy of contemporary figures such as Foucault, Habermas, Rorty, Derrida, Rawls, Davidson, and MacIntyre.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 208 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 460 (US;IL) (AF AM 460) African American Philosophy (3) Major works by African American Philosophers, on topics of race, freedom, citizenship, nationhood, law and society.
Effective: Spring 2013
Prerequisite: AF AM 100 orPHIL 009 and 5th semester standing  

PHIL 461 Plato (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Examines the metaphysics, epistemology, politics, aesthetics, and moral theory of this central figure in the history of philosophy.
Effective: Spring 1999
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 200 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 468 (J ST 468) Jewish Philosophy (3) Explores major figures and trends in Jewish philosophy and their influences on other philosophical traditions.
Effective: Fall 2015
Prerequisite: one course in Philosophy and/or Jewish Studies  

PHIL 473 German Idealism (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Critically examines the philosophy of central German idealists, including Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, and its impact on later philosophy.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy including eitherPHIL 202 orPHIL 203 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 474 Kant (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Critical examination of the metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics, legal and moral philosophy, and influence of Immanuel Kant.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits in philosophy includingPHIL 202 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 476 Hegel (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Critical examination of the metaphysics, moral theory, epistemology, and philosophy of history of this central figure of 19th-century philosophy.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 203 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 479 Critical Theory (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Examines the ontology, political and social thought of the Frankfurt School from Horkheimer and Adorno to Marcuse and Habermas.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy including eitherPHIL 203 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 485 Heidegger (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Studies Heidegger's metaphysical thought from his early to later works regarding being, history, subjectivity, aesthetics, language, and his influence.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 402 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 486 Wittgenstein (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Examines Wittgenstein's early and late work, including logical atomism, meaning, language games, forms of life, and the private-language argument.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 204 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 487 Analytic Philosophy (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Analytic philosophy's founding by Frege, Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein; and its contemporary development by Quine, Kripke, Dummett, and Davidson.
Effective: Fall 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 202 orPHIL 204 along with 3 credits of philosophy at the 200 level  

PHIL 490 Dewey (3 per semester, maximum of 6) Critically examines the metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, logic, aesthetics, education theory, and social and political philosophy of this major American pragmatist.
Effective: Summer 1998
Prerequisite: 9 credits of philosophy includingPHIL 401 or 6 credits of philosophy at the 200-level  

PHIL 494 Research Project (1-12) Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small-group basis.
Effective: Summer 1994
 

PHIL 494H Research Project (1-12) Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small-group basis.
Effective: Fall 2007
 

PHIL 496 Independent Studies (1-18) Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.
Effective: Fall 1983
 

PHIL 497 Special Topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject which may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 1983
 

PHIL 498 Special topics (1-9) Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Effective: Fall 2001
 

PHIL 499 (IL) Foreign Study--Philosophy (1-12) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
Effective: Summer 2005
 

Last Import from UCM: November 18, 2017 3:00 AM

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