PL SC 464
Extractive Industries in Africa (3) Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of extractive industries in Africa.
PL SC (AAA S) 464 Globalization, Extractive Industries, and Conflicts in Africa (3)
Globalization has brought increased investments in extractive industries in many African countries. Investments in extractive industries are also likely to continue to increase rather rapidly, given the rising intensity in the competition for African resources, brought about by growing involvement of countries, such as China and India. The terms African countries obtain from corporations for mineral rights have been generally unfavorable. The unfolding competition for African resources brought about by investments from China and India may, however, help African governments to renegotiate the terms of mining concessions corporations to obtain better deals for their resources. Despite the rather poor terms African governments currently have, investments in extractive industries have stimulated economic growth in several countries. Some African countries, including Equatorial Guinea, Botswana, Gabon, Angola, Cameroon, and the Sudan, are experiencing what might be regarded as resource-based economic boom.
Such growth has, however, intensified compulsory acquisition of communal lands by African governments for concessions to extractive industries exposing large numbers of rural communities to evictions form the land they traditionally owned. The expropriations, which purportedly take place for public and development purposes, have led to serious socioeconomic problems, including unemployment and poverty of those evicted from their land, disintegration of traditional institutions of governance, civil wars, communal conflicts, human rights violations, high levels of corruption, and alarming rates of environmental degradation. The conflicts have ravaged many African counties and are likely to continue to occur until mechanisms that allow rural communities to become partners of the transformation are developed. This course examines the socioeconomic and environmental problems associated with land expropriations and extractive industries.