In some circumstances credits may be earned through successful completion of comprehensive examinations made available by the Penn State academic units that offer particular courses. When such an examination serves as a substitute for completing all the usual requirements of a Penn State course, the credits received are described as “Credit by Examination” and are accepted as fulfilling degree requirements. Students may initiate a request for Credit by Examination for a course, although the academic department or program offering the course determines whether it will make Credit by Examination available. A grade of “C” or higher must be earned in the examination for such credit to be awarded and to appear on the student’s transcript. Credit by Examination does not result in a quality grade (A, A-, etc.) and is not included in the calculation of the student’s grade point average. Any credits earned in this manner will appear on the student transcript with the notation CRX and without a reported grade. A fee may be assessed to cover the costs of the procedure.