Concepts and practice of community development. CED 152 Community Development Concepts and Practice (3) Community development is broadly recognized as a process by which places (communities, small towns, neighborhoods) and the people in them, improve their economic and/or social well-being. Health of the environment and sustainable use of natural resources ensure the long-term well-being of human populations and so are central to sustainable community development. The practice of community development requires the ability to identify and understand the interrelationships of economy, society and environment locally, nationally and globally. Community development hinges on the capacity of local communities and residents to influence and determine their own futures. Students will gain an introduction to the concepts and models of community development and will become familiar with the roles of community development practitioners in developed and developing country settings. They will be able to identify the consequences of development strategies for social, economic and environmental well-being, focusing on the interrelationships of these aspects of development. Students will be introduced to strategies to identify capacity and resources available in communities and those that need to be enhanced. Models of decision-making will be introduced and students will work in teams in class with a focus on successful team functioning, identifying commonalities and shared interests to foster decision-making, and being able to extend that experience to working with groups in a community. Students will gain knowledge and understanding of the relevant concepts, processes and practice through readings and in-class lecture and discussion. Case studies of specific community development issues will give students the opportunity to apply the concepts and skills they learn in class, and to work in teams where students take on perspectives of different stakeholders and attempt to reach a resolution. Examples will be used throughout the course to portray important concepts. This knowledge and associated skills can be used to form the basis for further training and a career in community development or to provide a basic understanding for those interested in volunteering in their own community.
This course will survey the main issues that relate science and technology to public policy.
Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences
General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)
This course covers ethics and the social contract to include substantive ethical theories focusing on rights-based ethical theories (libertarianism and egalitarian theories) and consequentialist theories (utilitarianism and axiology). These theories assist in conceptually defining levels of participation and consent in democracy. This course explores the circumstances in which rational persons and political groups historically agree to be bound in collective decision making. The primary focus by examines four separate ethical themes illustrating why and how individuals accept a variety of terms.The course highlights philosophical/ethical decisions related to agriculture issues during the history of the United States. Issues range from non-interference rights to opportunity rights dealing with food, fiber, natural resource and environmental issues. Procedural theory emphasizes the formation of legitimate and defensible rules rather than ethics. Policy choices are assumed to be legitimate and defensible as long as individuals follow the rules/procedures for decision making. The content of this course meshes the procedural and the substance theories found throughout historical debates in agriculture communities. The course identifies traditional agrarian problem identification, policy formation, policy adoption and funding, program implementation and program evaluation.How ethics figures historically in agriculture policy processes is applied in a variety of case studies and debates as well as selected readings. The course includes an examination of the ethics of when, how and where the policy process historically influenced agriculture public policies. The course emphasizes the need to critically think about various points of view expressed by various conflicting authors.
Cross-listed with: AG 160
General Education: Humanities (GH)
GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think
GenEd Learning Objective: Soc Resp and Ethic Reason
Apply principles of economics to analyze environmental protection policies and natural resource use decision. Examine contemporary policy issues. E RRE (AG EC) 201 Introductory Environmental and Resource Economics (3) An introduction to the concepts, theories, and applied methods used in the economic analysis of environment and natural resource issues. The course covers topics such as the principles of market efficiency, why the market often fails where environmental and natural resource issues are concerned, and environmental policy prescriptions and tools designed to correct this market failure. These principles and tools are explored with respect to air and water pollution, management and use of renewable natural resources such as forests and fisheries, and the unique problems of managing nonrenewable resources such as minerals and oil. The course aims to give students an understanding of how traditional economic principles can be used to suggest and evaluate possible responses to the environmental and resource problems facing society.
Prerequisite: AG BM101 or ECON 102
Exploration of issues related to economic development in national and international contexts, where key interrelationships between and among developed and developing regions are made explicit. CED 230 Development Issues in the Global Context (3) Local communities - in both developed and developing countries -- are influenced by strong global forces that affect the well-being of their residents. Community economic development is one approach to enhance improve economic outcomes. This course will use an issue-oriented approach to help students understand economic development patterns and resultant issues in the U.S. as compared to what is observed and what is of critical concern in other places. Topics will include the concept of globalization, economic restructuring trends, investment in human capital and the ability to retain this often mobile form of capital, migration and change in patterns of migration, and environmental effects of development in different contexts. Each year that the course is taught, there will be a focus on patterns of economic development by region in the U.S. but with comparisons to three other selected countries -- one in Latin America, one in Asia and one in Africa. Students will be encouraged to compare and contrast economic and related social issues that arise in these contexts, with particular emphasis given to recent economic trends and events and to the rate of change compared to the past.
The CED Professional Seminar helps students learn how to be successful in the CED major and in their future professional careers. The emphasis is on career opportunities, important skills to learn and hone, and tailoring the major to fit their future professional interests. The course operates similar to a lab, with most work done in the classroom. It includes frequent interaction with CED professionals from a variety of organizations and topical areas, and hands-on skill training in facilitation and community-process techniques.
Concurrent Courses: CED 152
Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Theory of land use and land use decision-making. CED 309 Land Use Dynamics (3) Land is a key natural resource for society. Decisions related to land use are understood through alternative theories that serve to explain why prevailing land use patterns occur and change. This course examines the theoretical foundations of land use and policy practices to better understand how land use may change in the future in response to changes in land prices, population growth, human preferences and especially preferences for natural amenities, and the quality of the natural environment, among other factors. Given current issues including the twin problems of urban sprawl and land abandonment, the course will also examine the role of land use policy and specific programs to guide and provide greater public control over land use decisions. Students will gain an appreciation of the importance of land as a resource, and the potential for irreversibility in many land use decisions. Knowledge will be gained of the relevant theories, trends and policies through readings and in-class lecture and discussion.
This Honors course focuses on intermediate principles of environmental and natural resource economics, with strong emphasis on policy analysis and applications. The central focus in any economics course is how best to allocate scarce resources and this holds true for this course as well. However, in this course the goods and services we will talk about differ from those in other economics courses in that there is typically no market in which to trade them - e.g., air and water quality or a scenic view. Thus, it may be the case that government policies are needed to maintain and enhance their quantity and/or quality. The course is structured around a number of broad thematic areas with individual book chapters, papers, class discussions, and assignments used to learn the material. The first two parts provide a review of micro and environmental economic theory, and an overview of how economists think about environmental issues. The third section focuses on benefit-cost analysis and valuation issues, and the fourth section looks at government intervention and policy. The final section(s) focus on specific topics in environmental and natural resource economics and related policy issues with the general goal being to provide students a better understanding of current issues related to the environment.
Prerequisites: ( MATH 110 OR MATH 140 ) AND CED 201 AND ECON 302
Understanding community decision-making, citizen-expert interactions and methods for resolving seemingly intractable conflicts associated with public issues. CED 375H Community, Local Knowledge, and Democracy (3) Decisions made in our communities have far reaching effects on individuals, families, neighborhoods, the local economy, the environment, the health and welfare of all citizens, and the community as a whole. These decisions or choices are the result of the collective action of community leaders and citizens, either through governmental, non-governmental, or community organizations. This course will familiarize students with principles, concepts and skills essential to understanding processes of community decision making and community development. These processes involve countless human interactions, which ultimately lead to choices that affect the future economic, environmental, political, and social viability of citizens, their families, and the sustainability of their communities. These interactions are central to community decision making and community development, and to the functioning of local democracy. The nature of these interactions and the way in which they take place determine if desired community outcomes occur or not. This course seeks to reveal important, sometimes neglected or underdeveloped, factors in community decision making, specifically issue framing, tensions between local and expert knowledge, methods for resolving seemingly intractable conflicts associated with public issues, and the nature and role of participatory processes in debate, deliberation, and doing public work. This course will enable students to use these factors for analyzing community decision making situations and as community development tools in professional practice. In addition, students will be challenged to examine ethical issues in community decision making and community development professional practice.
Prerequisite: Prerequisite or concurrent: CED 152
Explore concepts and values distinctive to indigenous ways of knowing in the Great Lakes Region through readings, reflections, and library research. CED 400 Exploring Indigenous Ways of Knowing in the Great Lakes Region: Lecture (2.5) (US) Exploring Indigenous Ways of Knowing in the Great Lakes Region (400A) explores concepts and values distinctive to indigenous ways of knowing (IK) in the Great Lakes Region through readings, video segments, and lectures. Five structural concepts or key themes—local knowledge, relational knowledge, empirical knowledge, spiritual knowledge, and traditional knowledge—provide a conceptual framework for understanding indigenous cultures and knowledge production and their unique contributions to western society in the 21st century. Students will be introduced to the Algonquian cultures of the Great Lakes Region and to the Ojibwe (Anishinaabeg), Odawa, and Potawatomi (Three Fires) cultures in particular. This course will introduce students to the distinctive ways indigenous people experience, understand, and know the world through their relationship with the land or region to which they belong. Too often, colonizers around the world have ignored indigenous knowledge systems even though these ways of knowing have sustained peoples, cultures, and environments for thousands of generations. Because these ways of knowing are generally preserved and transmitted through stories, music, ceremony, and embodied traditions, they are seldom understood and frequently dismissed by those who control the production of knowledge in the modern world. The knowledge of the indigenous peoples of the Great Lakes region will, in this course, be presented as an empirically grounded scientific body of knowledge and theory comparable and complementary to the European tradition and, in specific ways, enhancing the sustainability of western scientific knowledge and practice. This course is a prerequisite for the Maymester field experience—Exploring Indigenous Ways of Knowing among the Ojibwe (400B)--which offers students an opportunity to experience indigenous ways of knowing by engaging with Ojibwe educators, traditional knowledge holders, elders, and families among the Anishinaabeg of Red Lake, Leech Lake, and White Earth Nations, the three largest Ojibwe reservations in the US.
Prerequisite: R SOC011 , SOC 001 or equivalent
United States Cultures (US)
Through an intensive cultural engagement students will learn skills important to the pursuit of ethnographic research in cross-cultural contexts. CED 401 Exploring Indigenous Ways of Knowing Among the Ojibwe (0.5) (US) Exploring Indigenous Ways of Knowing among the Ojibwe—CED 400B, a 2-3 week field experience, transports students from the classroom to the Red Lake, Leech Lake, and White Earth Nations in northern Minnesota. During travel, students will follow part of the 800 year Great Migration route of the Ojibwe from their ancestral home around the St. Lawrence River estuary to western Lake Superior and the headwaters of the Mississippi River. This field experience will immerse students in the Anishinaabeg community, the largest of the “three fires” (Ojibwe, Odawa, Potawatomi) of the Great Lakes region. While most Americans learn history facing west, history will be presented through the experiences and memories of people facing east. Early Ojibwe history will be outlined while the period of contact, colonization, and restoration (late 1700 to the present) will be covered in greater detail. Ojibwe cultural codes and spiritual values will be explored through “the teachings” and participation in important ceremonies (sweat lodge, pipe, big drum, wiping the tears, shake tent, intertribal traditional powwow). The political and social injustices of colonialism will be examined, including removal, allotment, religious oppression, and the boarding school era. To experience family and social life, students will live for two days with Ojibwe host families on the Red Lake Nation (one of 2 closed reservations in the US). Students will be introduced to indigenous science and environmental justice (climate change, water quality, biodiversity and endangered species, traditional and sustainable agriculture, fish and game, wild edible and medicinal plants, forest management, etc.). Finally, a canoe trip through the headwaters of the Mississippi River will focus on nature and environmental health. The five key IK themes explored in the classroom—local knowledge, relational knowledge, empirical knowledge, spiritual knowledge, and traditional knowledge—will provide a framework for engaging with and understanding Ojibwe culture and knowledge production and their unique contributions to western science and American culture. Students will meet and learn from more than 25 prominent Ojibwe elders, educators, scientists, political leaders, medicine men/women, environmentalists, ethnobotanists, storytellers, and host family members. Students will also learn listening, observing, attending, respecting, critical thinking, and recording skills, all important to the study of cultures and the pursuit of ethnological research in cross cultural contexts. Exploring Indigenous Ways of Knowing among the Ojibwe—CED 400A, offered during spring semester, is a prerequisite for this field experience.
Prerequisite: CED 400A or comparable course
United States Cultures (US)
Students will learn empirical research methodology in the areas of community, environment and development. CED 404 Survey Research Methods (3) CED 404 teaches students practical approaches to empirical research in the areas of community, environment, and development (CED). The course covers research tools commonly used by CED professionals at the local level, including secondary data analysis, surveys, focus groups, and participatory research. As importantly, students learn and practice the basic mindset required for developing and exploring research questions. Students discuss and practice appropriate methods for presenting research results, including writing for different genres.
Prerequisite: STAT 200
General land use planning laws and procedures. CED 409 Land Use Planning and Procedure (3) This course provides students with an understanding of the legal and procedural aspects of land use planning as found in the United States. The emphasis of the course is to explain the sources of land use planning authority, the processes by which it is applied and the potential conflicts that arise in the application of this authority. As a result of taking this course, students will be expected to learn and explain a) the objectives of land use planning systems and a comparative analysis of these systems; b) the bases on which land use planning law and procedure is applied across the U.S.; c) policies, strategies and principles that can be applied to land use planning decisions; d) several land use planning models currently applied in American jurisdictions, including the structure of each land use planning system; e) the procedural steps used to engage the land use planning system by property owners and government officials; f) typical conflicts that arise in creating, changing or enforcing land use planning measures; g) how land use planning conflict is resolved in various systems.Student performance will be measured in two midterm exams and a final exam. The instructor reserves the right to give additional exams to aid in measuring student knowledge and understanding of course material. Each test will primarily be short essays questions that ask for an explanation, discussion, comparison or application of specific concepts and principles. Case studies also will be used to present students with situations to hone their analytical, organizational and problem solving skills on specific problem situations. This will ask students to analyze a given set of facts, assess the issues raised by the facts from the perspectives of individuals who are described in the situation and form and present a response that addresses a specific question posed to the student.
Prerequisite: 6 credits of B LAW, CED, ECON, E R M, E RRE, PL SC, R EST, SOC, S T S (any combination)
Exploration of critical global issues relevant to sustainable development and the environment. Collaborative with other universities worldwide. CED 410 The Global Seminar (3) The Global Seminar course will help students gain an understanding of the implications of global change in a world of limited natural resources. The course will help students to understand the difficulties that society faces in balancing the environment with human needs; appreciate the challenge of balancing competing needs at different levels (individuals, communities, organizations, governments); understand trade-offs and the role of policy; and explore and critically assess avenues for effectively dealing with global issues. Students participating in the Global Seminar have the opportunity of direct interaction with students from other universities and academic institutions who may have different perspectives on these issues. To allow this interaction, the Global Seminar is offered jointly with other universities from across the world, with students engaging in global videoconferences, virtual classroom discussions and group work with student peers at other universities. Case studies are used, with critical assessment of important global issues related to development and environment, with a particular focus on food production and natural resources. Specific cases vary by course offering but may include cases related to: population dynamics, biodiversity, water quality, waste management, GMOs, BSE, organic food production, novel protein foods, among others. Issues of long-term sustainability are explored to gain a better understanding of the implications of alternative choices. The course is offered in collaboration with Cornell University, with students using Cornell's Blackboard system. The course is intended to strengthen linkages for students with other universities for study and research.
Impact of institutions on human interdependence and behavior, the structure of power, and community decision making and public policy. CED 417 Power, Conflict, and Community Decision Making (3) Community decision making and public choice is the result of collective action among individuals. The purpose of this course is to develop frameworks for analyzing conflict, power, and public choice. This course enables students to understand how culture and institutions affect the nature of human interdependence and behavior, shape patterns of influence and power, and impact community decision making and policy.
Prerequisite: R SOC011 or SOC 001
Analysis of women's work, experiences, and development policies and practices in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. CED (WMNST) 420 Women in Developing Countries (3) (US;IL)The purpose of this course is to increase understanding of women's lives in third world countries at the time when women's movements, grassroots activism, and feminism are on the rise in the third world. The course examines third world women's challenges to Western definitions of feminism and traces the theoretical shifts and practical changes related to women's issues in African, Asia, and Latin America. Students participate in studying specific community and agricultural development projects. Topics include feminist critiques of development and post-colonialism, ecofeminism and environment, sexuality and reproduction, global restructuring, and grassroots community activism. This course will add diversity to both the rural sociology, community and economic development, and women's studies curricula. International, gender, ethnic, and racial issues are core components of the course. The course will be an elective for Women's Studies majors and minors and will serve graduate students in rural sociology, women's studies, and other fields.
Prerequisite: 5th semester standing or above
Cross-listed with: WMNST 420
International Cultures (IL)
United States Cultures (US)
International community and economic development. CED 425 International Community and Economic Development (3) Eight of ten people on the planet live in developing countries where problems such as hunger, malnutrition, infant morality, inadequate housing, underemployment, over-urbanization, and environmental degradation often are severe. This class will focus on community and economic development in developing countries. Through lectures, readings, a series of topical videos, and in-depth class discussions, students will obtain a firm grounding in the ways development has been defined, the social and economic problems facing developing countries today, the basic ways in which economic development has been approached theoretically and empirically, the implications for developing countries of being embedded in a globalizing economy, the influence of multinational corporations, the policies that developing countries have followed to foster economic growth, the nature of foreign aid, the causes and consequences of Third World debt, the promise of micro-enterprise and the informal economy, rural development and land reform, and other topics.
Prerequisite: CED 152 and CED 230
Analysis of the relationships between societal development and enhancement and natural resources. CED 427W Society and Natural Resource (3) There is a common tendency to portray environmental and natural resource problems as biophysical in nature. The implication of this tendency is that such problems are best addressed by scientists and engineers who discover evidence of and devise new technologies to fix them. Another common tendency is to assume that people resist solutions to environmental and natural resource problems because of individually held anti-environmental attitudes. In contrast to these two perspectives, sociologists point out that environmental and natural resource problems often lie at the intersection of biophysical processes and social, political, economic, belief, value, and knowledge systems. The goals of this writing-intensive course are to introduce students to the complexity of environmental and natural resource problems and to teach them to think sociologically. After taking this course, students should be better prepared to engage in debates with academics, politicians, and other citizens regarding the causes o and potential solutions to environmental and natural resource problems.
Prerequisite: R SOC001 or SOC 001 and ENGL 202
Writing Across the Curriculum
Concepts, strategies and techniques of local economic analysis, planning and development; case studies and decision-making exercises. CED 430 Principles of Community Economic Development (3) This course is designed to introduce the issues giving rise to concern for rural and regional economies, and the theories, concepts and tools of rural and regional economic development. The goal is to integrate theory and practice and apply them to economic development problems. Tools are presented in a "how to" manner. Topics include current issues in rural economies, the economic view of rural development; business retention, expansion and location; entrepreneurship and its role in the economy; understanding the local economic structure and the forces of chance; introduction to economic growth theories; export base theory and economic base analysis; the role of labor and capital in development; techniques of market area, central place, shift-share and input-output analysis; policies of local economic development and growth.
Prerequisite: introductory course in economics
Economic analysis of environmental and natural resource policies, benefit-cost analysis, non-market valuation techniques; resource damage assessment.
Prerequisite: ECON 302
The course begins with an overview of the scope of food systems and an orientation to interdisciplinary and community - based approaches for understanding and addressing social and ecological problems and potential changes in food systems. Two weeks are dedicated to reviewing selected challenges facing the food and agricultural system to underscore the complexity of these issues and illustrate how they have been approached and analyzed by different disciplinary fields. The next two weeks of the course are devoted to critical exploration of theoretical and policy models for understanding how food systems function and change. These conceptual and analytical tools are then applied in three subsequent course modules, focused on 1) Changing Agricultural Production Systems; 2) Changing Food and Farm Work; and 3) Changing Food Consumers and Eaters. Each of these three - week modules will focus on 3 - 4 cases of change efforts either led from "above" through government policies or business initiatives or from "below" by grassroots groups or social movements. Cases will be selected to compare and contrast U.S. contexts with other international contexts and to highlight the diverse experiences and perspectives across racial - ethnic, class, cultural and gender differences within the food and agricultural system. The course will conclude by synthesizing ideas and insights about the limitations and potentials of different approaches to food systems change. In the last week of class, students will also give "lightning talks" distilling their learning about food systems change through an individual semester long field - project with a local or regional community group, business, agency or farm.
Prerequisite: AG BM 170
Cross-listed with: FDSYS 442
The goal of this 400-level course is to facilitate students' development of the hands-on skills and practical knowledge needed to engage successfully in international development work in the public, private, and non-governmental sectors. The course emphasizes competencies needed to effectively secure employment and work in occupations and sub-fields of international development that are most related to the CED major. It is organized into a series of modules that correspond to the major phases of international development projects - design, implementation, and evaluation. Students will integrate these phases by working through a "case study" of a specific development project for each semester. The course includes guest lecturers ¿ and budget requests accordingly ¿ who are currently working in the international development sector.
Theories of agricultural and economic development, with particular attention to interactions between development, renewable resources, and the environment. CED 450 International Development, Renewable Resources, and the Environment (3) (IL) This course introduces the key economic concepts and theories used to analyze agricultural and economic development in developing countries, with particular attention to interactions between development, natural resources, and the environment. The course examines how economic development can affect natural resources and the environment, and how resource and environmental conditions affect development. The course integrates theory with empirical evidence from developing countries, so that students gain an understanding of how different development strategies have actually fared in practice.
Prerequisite: 6 credits in Environmental Economics, Resource Economics or Economics
International Cultures (IL)
Social organization and change in rural communities; use of sociological principles in analysis of rural problems and rural development. CED 452 Rural Organization (3) This course combines an introduction to the social theories of communities with real-life examples of applications to understanding community problems and concerns. The focus is on the special circumstances facing small towns and rural communities, but the concepts are applicable in all communities, from urban neighborhoods to suburbs. Topics covered include local community in a global economy, power and decision-making, the role of governments and other social institutions, development of community and the importance of building social infrastructure as well as economic and physical infrastructure, multi community collaboration and building, and sustainable communities. Those taking the class will gain experience in conducting a case study of a small Pennsylvania community, build skills in working in a team, and gain understanding of the complexity of factors that influence community (and your own) well-being. If your future career involves operating within a community setting, this course can increase your knowledge of that setting and how to function within it. And, even if you don't plan on working with communities in your job, you will be living in a community. This course can help you to understand the ways that you can contribute to improving your own quality of life by becoming involved in your community.
Prerequisite: 6 credits in rural sociology, sociology, or psychology
People generally describe sustainability as an ideal that encompasses three spheres: environmental, economic, and social. Often, however, the social component receives the least amount of attention. Many projects lauded for their sustainability benefit only a privileged few. Alternately, the framework of just sustainability places issues of equity and social justice at the center of the discussion. It requires that we ask, first and foremost, who wins, who loses, and who decides. As community development (CD) scholars and practitioners, we are in a position to integrate these questions-and a vision of just sustainability-into our work. Central to this task is working in partnership with community members to identify problems, to ask questions, and to develop solutions. All community change efforts need good information, and good information comes from research. This course introduces students to participatory research methods, placing special emphasis on research ethics, the positionality of the researcher, and embedding research within CD practice. We will focus on research design within the context of a community project, data collection, data analysis, and the dissemination of results. We will cover various approaches to measuring community phenomena, including basic interview techniques, focus groups, observation, surveys, participatory mapping, and other qualitative analytical methods
Prerequisites: CED 230 AND CED 404
An experiential-learning course that provides a capstone learning experience for seniors graduating from the Community, Environment and Development major. CED 475 CED Integrated Capstone Experience (3) A well-designed capstone experience provides students with a valuable reflective and integrative experience as they complete their baccalaureate degree programs. This course is designed to encourage students to reflect, integrate and apply the knowledge that they have learned in previous coursework for the CED major. The course is built on discussion and exercises that require integration. Like the CED program more generally, this course relies on case studies to help students apply the skills that they have learned to actual cases that challenge communities and regions in developed and developing areas of the world. The CED program is also designed to include experiential-learning exercises throughout the program; this course engages students in a significant in-depth experience or project that will vary year-by-year. The experience could be in the United States or in another country. The project will be hands-on and action-oriented. Evaluation is based on assessment of active participation in class discussions, papers that provide critical assessments of the case studies assigned to the class, and a final project conducted in the field, either in the U.S. or internationally.
Prerequisite: senior status only
Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small group bsis.
Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.
Supervised field experience in an environmental setting.
Prerequisite: prior approval of program
Full-Time Equivalent Course
Creative projects, including research and design, that are supervised on an individual basis and that fall outside the scope of formal courses.
Formal courses given infrequently to explore, in depth, a comparatively narrow subject that may be topical or of special interest.
Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction.
International Cultures (IL)